The Weald of Kent, Surrey and Sussex
Knole      Sevenoaks  

Books and other documents
PublishedTitle, author and references
1766The History of Tunbridge Wells by Thomas Benge Burr ⇒ p. 229
1797The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent - Volume III by Edward Hastedp. 62
1797The Tunbridge Wells Guide by J. Sprange ⇒ p. 207
1810Tunbridge Wells and its Neighbourhood by Paul Amsinck and Letitia Byrnep. 58
1830Guide of Tunbridge Wells ⇒ p. 146
1832Descriptive Sketches of Tunbridge Wells and the Calverley Estate by John Britton, F.S.A. ⇒ p. 144
1840New Guide for Tunbridge Wells by John Colbran and edited by James Phippen ⇒ p. 356
1874A History of The Weald of Kent with an outline of the History of the County to the present time, Volume II by Robert Furley, F.S.A.p. 384; p. 410; p. 455; p. 493
1883Pelton's Illustrated Guide to Tunbridge Wells by J. Radford Thomson, M.A. ⇒ p. 167
1885Cobbett's Rural Rides by William Cobbett ⇒ p. 72
1901Old Sevenoaks by Frank Richards and illustrated by Charles Essenhigh Corke, F.R.P.S.p. 75
1909English Homes and Villages (Kent & Sussex)
also published as
Tunbridge Wells and its Neighbourhood by Lady Hope ⇒ p. 187; p. 200; p. 214
1914Highways and Byways in Kent by Walter Jerrold with Illustrations by Hugh Thomson ⇒ p. 351
1933Country Houses of Kent by Arthur Oswald ⇒ p. 31

Historical records

1553BirthRachel Neville [Lennard], Lady BergavennyKnoleIGI - Family Search
Batch T99045-5

Jul 1573HistoryKnoleThe Parish of Benenden, Kent
From a study of her Progress it appears the Queen started from her Palace July 14, 1573, to Archbishop Parker at Croydon, where she remained seven days, after which she went a Progress into Kent, and was again entertained by the same prelate at Canterbury. From Croydon July 21, the Queen proceeded to Orpington, the House of Sir Perceval Hart, Knt., where she remained three days, when she went to Knolle, then her own, thence to Birlingham, or Berling, the seat of the Lords Bergavenny where she remained three days, afterwards to Sir Thomas Gresham, of Mayfield, and then to Eridge, another house of Lord Burgavenny, where she stayed six. days. Then onwards to Bedgbury, Mr. Culpepper's, for one day. Thence to Hempsted, Mr. Guilford's, for three days, thence to Rye, where the Queen remained three days, and conferred the honor of Knighthood on Thomas Guilford, Thomas Walsingham, and Alexander Culpepper, Esquires. She proceeded onward to Sissinghurst, Mr. Baker's, whom she Knighted and stayed there, three days. After this to Boughton Malherb, the seat of the Wottons, where she was two days, thence to Mr. Tufton's at Hothfield, where she was two days, and some of her courtiers were entertained at Surrenden, the mansion of the Derings. From Hothfield to Westenhanger, the Keeper whereof was Lord Buckhurst, and remained there four days. After leaving Westenhanger on August 25 she proceeded to Dover.

26th Jul 1620DeathThomas SackvilleKnoleCharles J. Phillips'
History of the Sackville Family

6th Oct 1622BirthLady Isabella Compton [Sackville]KnoleCharles J. Phillips'
History of the Sackville Family

18th Jan 1688BirthLionel Cranfield Sackville, 1st Duke of DorsetKnoleCharles J. Phillips'
History of the Sackville Family

1809KnoleKnole, Sevenoaks by Paul Amsinck & engraved by Letitia ByrneLetitia ByrneAmsinck's Tunbridge Wells

1809KnoleKnole, Sevenoaks by Paul Amsinck & engraved by Letitia ByrneLetitia ByrneAmsinck's Tunbridge Wells

1824KnoleKnole, Sevenoaks by J. Clifford, Tunbridge WellsGuide of Tunbridge Wells

1830Knole ParkKnole Park, Sevenoaks by George VirtuePrivate collection

1840Knole - Second Entrance GatewayKnole - Second Entrance Gateway, SevenoaksColbran's Tunbridge Wells

13th Mar 1857DeathSir William Pitt Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst of ArracanKnolewww.thepeerage.com

15th May 1867BirthLionel Edward Sackville-West, 3rd Baron SackvilleKnoleIGI - Family Search

3rd Apr 1881CensusLord Sackville, M, Head, married, age 60; occupation PeerMortimer Sackville-West, 1st Baron SackvilleKnole House1881 Census
Sevenoaks, Kent
3rd Apr 1881CensusLady Elizabeth Sackville, F, Wife, married, age 39Elizabeth Sackville-West [Faber]
3rd Apr 1881CensusLucy Bethell, F, Visitor, single, age 36, born Doncaster, YorkLucy Bethell
3rd Apr 1881CensusH. Hamword, F, Servant, married, age 54, born Sudbourn, Suffolk; occupation: housekeeperH. Hamword
3rd Apr 1881CensusC. Duncan, F, Servant, single, age 33, born Greenock, Scotland; occupation: cookC. Duncan
3rd Apr 1881CensusBridget Healey, F, Servant, single, age 23, born Litrim, Ireland; occupation: kitchenmaidBridget Healey
3rd Apr 1881CensusC. Mcleren, F, Servant, single, age 21, born Aberdeen; occupation: kitchenmaidC. Mcleren
3rd Apr 1881CensusE. Story, F, Servant, single, age 30, born Kelso; occupation: kitchenmaidE. Story
3rd Apr 1881CensusM. King, F, Servant, single, age 31, born Haddington, Lincoln; occupation: housemaidM. King
3rd Apr 1881CensusM. Helm, F, Servant, single, age 25, born Highwick; occupation: housemaidM. Helm
3rd Apr 1881CensusM. Smith, F, Servant, single, age 26, born Kirkcudbright; occupation HousemaidM. Smith
3rd Apr 1881CensusA. Knox, F, Servant, single, age 22, born Perth; occupation: housemaidA. Knox
3rd Apr 1881CensusBetsy Melvill, F, Servant, single, age 24, born Perth; occupation: laundry maidBetsy Melvill
3rd Apr 1881CensusJohana Holm, F, Servant, single, age 22, born Moary Shire; occupation: laundry maidJohana Holm
3rd Apr 1881CensusAgnes Geddes, F, Servant, single, age 20, born Newton Steuart; occupation: laundry maidAgnes Geddes
3rd Apr 1881CensusArthur Smith, M, Servant, single, age 30, born York; occupation Under butlerArthur Smith
3rd Apr 1881CensusFred Barson, M, Servant, single, age 25, born Kingstone, Nottingham, occupation: footmanFred Barson
3rd Apr 1881CensusH. Spinks, M, Servant, single, age 17, born Scarborough; occupation: stroom boyH. Spinks
3rd Apr 1881CensusGeorge Richardson, M, Servant, single, age 21, born Bransburby; occupation GroomGeorge Richardson

3rd Apr 1881CensusJohn Bowles, M, Head, married, age 68, born Chevining, Kent; occupation: porterJohn Bowles, porterKnole House1881 Census
Sevenoaks, Kent
3rd Apr 1881CensusHarriot Bowles, F, Wife, married, age 53, born Chiddingstone, KentHarriot Bowles
3rd Apr 1881CensusA. Elliott, F, Servant, single, age 23, born Cuckfield, Sussex; occupation: lady's maidA. Elliott
3rd Apr 1881CensusC. Henderson, F, Servant, single, age 31, born Orwell, Scotland; occupation: stillroom maidC. Henderson

3rd Apr 1881CensusNathan Mothersole, M, Head, married, age 24, born Berry St Edmds, Suffolk; occupation: watchmanNathan Mothersole, watchmanKnole Park1881 Census
Sevenoaks, Kent
3rd Apr 1881CensusEmma Mothersole, F, Wife, married, age 21, born Sittingbourne, KentEmma Mothersole
3rd Apr 1881CensusNathan Mothersole, M, Son, age 2 m, born Faversham, KentNathan Mothersole

3rd Apr 1881CensusWilliam Cooper, M, Head, married, age 42, born Leicester; occupation: joinerWilliam Cooper, joinerKnole Park1881 Census
Sevenoaks, Kent
3rd Apr 1881CensusAnnie Cooper, F, Wife, married, age 42, born LeicesterAnnie Cooper
3rd Apr 1881CensusEmily Cooper, F, Daughter, single, age 19, born LeicesterEmily Cooper
3rd Apr 1881CensusW. G. Cooper, M, Son, single, age 16, born LeicesterW. G. Cooper
3rd Apr 1881CensusM. L. Cooper, F, Daughter, single, age 14, born Leicester; occupation: scholarM. L. Cooper
3rd Apr 1881CensusE. G. Cooper, F, Daughter, single, age 10, born Leicester; occupation: scholarE. G. Cooper
3rd Apr 1881CensusR. C. B. Cooper, M, Son, age 3, born Farnboro, Warwick; occupation: scholarR. C. B. Cooper
3rd Apr 1881CensusPercy J. Cooper, M, Son, age 4 m, born Sevenoaks, KentPercy J. Cooper

3rd Apr 1881CensusThos.J. Crane, M, Head, married, age 37, born Clapham, Surrey; occupation: head gardenerThomas J. Crane, head gardenerKnole Park1881 Census
Sevenoaks, Kent
3rd Apr 1881CensusEliza Crane, F, Wife, married, age 40, born Bitton, GloucesterEliza Crane
3rd Apr 1881CensusThos.W. Crane, M, Son, age 10, born Bromley, Kent; occupation: scholarThomas W. Crane
3rd Apr 1881CensusErnest E. Crane, M, Son, age 8, born Bromley, Kent; occupation: scholarErnest E. Crane
3rd Apr 1881CensusHerbert A. Crane, M, Son, age 6, born Bromley, Kent; occupation: scholarHerbert A. Crane
3rd Apr 1881CensusArthur B. Crane, M, Son, age 3, born Bromley, Kent; occupation: scholarArthur B. Crane
3rd Apr 1881CensusGeorge P. Crane, M, Son, age 1, born Sevenoaks, KentGeorge P. Crane
3rd Apr 1881CensusRobert C. Norris, M, Lodger, single, age 26, born St Lawrance, Kent; occupation GardenerRobert C. Norris
3rd Apr 1881CensusRobert W. Smith, M, Lodger, single, age 20, born Bromley, Kent; occupation GardenerRobert W. Smith
3rd Apr 1881CensusJohn Copson, M, Lodger, single, age 24, born Spratton, Northampton; occupation: gardenerJohn Copson

3rd Apr 1881CensusGeorge Tooy, M, Head, widowed, age 47, born Sevenoaks, Kent; occupation Park KeeperGeorge TooyKnole Park1881 Census
Sevenoaks, Kent
3rd Apr 1881CensusFrank Tooy, M, Son, single, age 18, born Sevenoaks, Kent; occupation GardenerFrank Tooy
3rd Apr 1881CensusArthur Tooy, M, Son, single, age 15, born Sevenoaks, Kent; occupation GroomArthur Tooy
3rd Apr 1881CensusHarry Tooy, M, Son, single, age 14, born Sevenoaks, Kent; occupation GardenerHarry Tooy
3rd Apr 1881CensusHarrold Tooy, M, Son, single, age 12, born Sevenoaks, Kent; occupation ScholarHarrold Tooy
3rd Apr 1881CensusEdgar Tooy, M, Son, single, age 11, born Sevenoaks, Kent; occupation ScholarEdgar Tooy
3rd Apr 1881CensusAnn Clout, F, Servant, widowed, age 65, born Bromley, Kent; occupation: housekeeperAnn Clout

1890 to 1919AddressVictoria Josefa Dolores Catalina Sackville-WestKnoleNigel Nicolson's
Portrait of a Marriage

8th Mar 1892BirthHon. Victoria (Vita) Mary Nicolson [Sackville-West]Knolewww.thepeerage.com

after 9th Mar 1892HistoryKnole

Victoria Mary (Vita) Sackville-West, poet, novelist and gardener, was born on 9th March 1892 at Knole, Sevenoaks, the only child of Lionel Edward Sackville-West (18671928), and his wife and first cousin, Victoria Josefa Dolores Catalina Sackville-West (18621936), the illegitimate daughter of Sir Lionel Sackville Sackville-West (18271908) and the Spanish dancer Josefa Durán (known as Pepita).

Vita grew up at Knole House and her early experiences there, including her often difficult relationships with other Sackvilles, were to have an important bearing on her writings. In 1913 she married the diplomat and broadcaster Harold Nicholson. They lived in London and at Long Barn, a house near Knole, between 1915 and 1930 where she wrote many of her early books (including Knole and the Sackvilles in 1922 and the pastoral poem The Land in 1926 which was awarded the Hawthornden Prize) and where she and her husband developed and experimented with their first garden. In 1930 they bought the ruined Sissinghurst Castle and spent many years creating Sissinghurst Gardens including the famous White Garden, Rose Garden, Orchard, Cottage Garden and Nuttery - now run by the National Trust. Her attachment to Knole led to her publishing English Country Houses in 1940 and records her love for such houses from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. She wrote extensively about gardening including a weekly column for the Observer from 1946 until 1961.

Vita was a prolific writer from an early age. But it was in the 1930s that she published her best known work The Edwardians (1930), All Passion Spent (1931), Family History (1932) which portrayed English upper-class manners and life, and Pepita (1937) which recalls her early life and her relationships with her mother and grandmother.

Throughout her life Vita's private life led to numerous affairs including Violet Trefusis (daughter of Mrs Alice Keppel the mistress of Edward VII), Evelyn Irons and Hilda Matheson. She was also very close to Virginia Wolfe about whom she wrote Seducers in Ecuador (1924) to which Wolfe responded with Orlando (1928).

In 1948 she was appointed a Companion of Honour for her services to literatures and in 1955 was awarded the gold Veitch medal of the Royal Horticultural Society. In later life she became reclusive at Sissinghurst and in 1961 became ill with stomach cancer and died there on 2 June 1962. She was cremated and buried in the Sackville family vault at Withyham, Sussex.

After her death, her son Nigel published Portrait of a Marriage in 1973. It was based on an autobiographical manuscript found in Sissinghurst and written when Vita was 28 - in 1920

See also


1900KnowleKnowle, Sevenoaks photographed by J. Salmon, SevenoaksPrivate collection

1900South West Front, Knole HouseSouth West Front, Knole House, Sevenoaks drawn by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerOld Sevenoaks

1902Green Court (West), KnoleGreen Court (West), Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1902Stone Court, KnoleStone Court, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1902South Front, KnoleSouth Front, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1905The Colonnade, KnoleThe Colonnade, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1905Knole Park in winterKnole Park in winter, Sevenoaks photographed by J. Salmon, SevenoaksPrivate collection

1906West Front, KnoleWest Front, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1907The Rose Garden, KnoleThe Rose Garden, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1907Keepers' Cottages, KnoleKeepers' Cottages, Knole, Sevenoaks photographed by A.N. HambrookPrivate collection

1908The Brown Gallery, KnoleThe Brown Gallery, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1908The Leicester Gallery, KnoleThe Leicester Gallery, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1909North West Front, KnoleNorth West Front, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1909The Great Hall, KnoleThe Great Hall, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1909The Cartoon Gallery, KnoleThe Cartoon Gallery, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1909King James I Bedroom, KnoleKing James I Bedroom, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by Charles Essenhigh CorkeCharles Essenhigh Corke, artist and photographerEnglish Homes and Villages

1910West Front, KnoleWest Front, Knole, Sevenoaks painted by A.R. QuintonPrivate collection

6th Aug 1914BirthLionel Benedict NicolsonKnolewww.thepeerage.com

3rd Nov 1915Birthstill bornUnnamed NicolsonKnoleNigel Nicolson's
Portrait of a Marriage

1927Knole ParkKnole Park, Sevenoaks photographed by J. Salmon, SevenoaksPrivate collection

c 1930Knole - the west frontKnole - the west frontCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - from the northKnole - from the northCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - the gate towerKnole - the gate towerCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - Stone CourtKnole - Stone CourtCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - the south frontKnole - the south frontCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - the hallKnole - the hallCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - the great staircaseKnole - the great staircaseCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - the great staircaseKnole - the great staircaseCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - the Brown GalleryKnole - the Brown GalleryCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - the Cartoon GalleryKnole - the Cartoon GalleryCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - chimneypiece in the Cartoon GalleryKnole - chimneypiece in the Cartoon GalleryCountry Houses

c 1930Knole - King Jamess bedroomKnole - King Jamess bedroomCountry Houses

c 1960KnoleKnole, SevenoaksJim Smith's records

1962Knole HouseKnole House, Sevenoaks photographed by Country LifeCountry Life Picture Book of Kent and Sussex - 1962
reproduced with the permission of Country Life

1962The Ballroom, Knole HouseThe Ballroom, Knole House, Sevenoaks photographed by Country LifeCountry Life Picture Book of Kent and Sussex - 1962
reproduced with the permission of Country Life

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